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1
Electric mobility / Re: The future of e-mobility
« Last post by PART-2-ES-Eider on Today at 00:16:32 »
Hello Pablo,

It's fantastic to hear that a huge country as it is China is making great progress towards a more sustainable future. For this reason, I think it's good to know how electric mobility is being developed in different countries. This is what my post will be about today.

While China is on the top spot for the largest EV market in unit sales, it isn't the country with the highest share in plug-in EVs. In 2018, the country with the highest share of plug-in electric vehicles in new passengers car sales was Norway, followed by Iceland, Sweden, Netherlands and Finland. The Nordics. especially Norway, are making great advances and are having a quicker transition into electric mobility than other countries. The policy measures taken by the Norwegian government have been very effective and this has made Norway one of the leading countries in electric mobility. The Norwegian government has set a goal for all new cars to have zero emissions by 2025. Ireland has set the same objective but by the year 2030 and the UK by 2040.

Although Norway is the country with the highest share in plug-in EVs, it isn't the one with more electric vehicles. Naturally, the country with the highest number of electric cars is China with 1,227,770, followed by the United States (762,060), Japan (205,350), Norway (176,310) and the United Kingdom (133,670). Comparing China with Norway, there's one electric car to every 30 Norwegians while there's one electric car to every 1137 Chinese.

The ranking of the countries with the highest number of charging points is similar to the previous one. On the one hand, China with 213,903 charging points, is the country with more charging points of the world, followed by the United States (45,868), the Netherlands (32,875), Japan (28,879) and Germany (24,289). On the other hand, Australia is the country with less charging points per 100km, followed by Poland, Hungary, Finland and Mexico.

All the data that I have provided in this post I have taken it from GoCompare and Statista.

I hope this has been useful to you.

Sincerely,
Eider del Hoyo. (Spain)
2
Search for extraterrestrial resources / Re: In-Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU)
« Last post by PART-3-ES-Ruth on 25 August , 2019, 21:53:01 pm »
Hello everybody!

It seems really interesting to me to start a new topic related to ISRU as, in my view, it is a key technique in the search for extraterrestrial resources for the following reason: as human space exploration goes further, it will become more and more important to generate life-sustaining elements (food, air, water, rocket propellants, spare parts for the spaceship, building materials…) in-situ because of the fact that resupply missions from Earth are incredibly expensive and inefficient as the resources need to be lifted from the Earth's gravity (while using ISRU don´t). In other words, it is far more viable, practical and affordable using space resources in-situ to sustain the crew and for space propulsion and power systems rather than carrying everything that is thought to be needed in the mission from Earth.

Such is the potential which the space industries have seen in In-Situ Resource Utilisation that an increasingly big number of ISRU projects are being developed nowadays. I will continue doing research into these projects and share with you what I learn!

Kind regards,

Ruth Mora
3
Blockchain technology / Re: GDPR: A new challenge for Blockchain.
« Last post by VET-ES-JoseJavier on 25 August , 2019, 20:01:49 pm »
Hi everyone,

I am currently surprised that this topic or others have not being receiving too many answers or feedback for the last weeks I would just like to remind the fact that this forum does not aim to be a simple encyclopedia written by the ones with more knowledge for the ones with less to read silently, because if that was the case, the program will not exist. I encourage sincerely to keep posting and writing, because the real purpose is to help each other and contribute to the general knowledge about this topic. You do not really have to absolute experts about this topics (no one does really know more than the Internet  ;)), but rather be willing to share your opinions, discoveries, progress, etc.

In order to provide an example, you could start researching about this topic that my fellow veteran shared some weeks ago. The GDPR may not be a law (or set of laws) which is always on the news, in fact it is rather unknown despite its purpose of regulating such an important topic as the Internet privacy. And even though it might seem as something which affects us directly, we shall not forget that most countries participating in IYSC are part of European Union and are supposed to abide it. And even for those countries which are not part (for instance, most technology enterprises are located in America or Asia), they must respect this laws when trading with UE, so, they are indirectly affected too.

Taking into account that Blockchain technology is supposed to "eliminate intermediaries" and provide a new framework of privacy, to what extent do you think it might clash with any GDPR detail? Are there  really any legal dispositions which could threaten Blockchain functionality in Europe?

I will really like to hear your opinions.

Best regards,
José Javier
4
Electric mobility / Electric Engine
« Last post by PART-2-ES-Pablo on 25 August , 2019, 17:33:22 pm »
Hello partners,

When we talk about the most important part of an electric vehicle we usually refer to the battery, and we have discussed a lot about such a relevant component. Nevertheless the electric motor is as important as the battery because it is the part which produces the motion that makes the vehicle move. Therefore, I wanted to explain some of the basics of the electric engine.

To begin, I wanted to share a fun fact that most people do not know and surprises them a lot. The electric engine was invented almost a 100 years before the combustion one.

Now, getting to the point. Every electric engine works thanks to electromagnetism and it is composed of two main parts:

1. The stator, which is the fixed part of the engine and it works as an electromagnet, therefore it is made of metal magnetically charged.
2. The rotor, which is the mechanism which spins around the stator.

The way the electric motor works is really simple and easy to understand. Once we supply the rotor with electricity, and electromagnetic camp is created. When it happens, this “temporal” electromagnetic camp interacts with the one made by the stator, which is permanent, because it always exists, no matter if there is electricity running through the engine or not.

When both electromagnetic camps with the same polarity interact, they tend to repel each other. The consequent effect of this phenomenon is that the rotor, which is the only part of the engine which is able to move, spins around its axis. This rotary movement is transmitted right to the wheels of the vehicle, therefore they also produce a circular movement. The movement which pushes the automobile forward.

This is a breve summary of how an electric engine works and how an electric vehicle moves. Nevertheless, there are many articles on the internet which expands this explanation with far more detail, and I encourage you to check them out if you want to add this kind of information to your projects. I leave a link to one of these articles.

https://www.explainthatstuff.com/electricmotors.html

I hope you have found this topic interesting and helpful.

Kind regards,
Pablo García
5
News / Electric Vehicles for the Olympics
« Last post by PART-2-ES-Pablo on 24 August , 2019, 18:54:22 pm »
Hello guys,

While I was surfing the web today, I found a very interesting piece of news regarding the Japanese automaker Toyota. This is the headline:

“Toyota going all-out with electric vehicles for the 2020 Olympics”

As you may know, the 2020 Olympics will be held in Tokyo, the capital city of Japan. For such an important event, Toyota has been designated as the official fleet provider by the organizers. This means that Toyota’s labor during the Games will be to deliver a huge number of vehicles in order to use them for several tasks, such as taking fans from one sports center to another or to be used by security agents that will protect the Olympics.

Yesterday, Toyota launched an official statement in which they claimed that they will provide a total number of 3,700 vehicles for the Games, and 90% of them will be electrified. This category also includes hydrogen powered vehicles as well as gas-electric hybrids.

According to the automaker, the vehicles they will provide will go from cars and buses to scooters and mopeds, so there will be a huge variety to satisfy the increased demand for mobility during the two weeks that the event lasts. Toyota expects that its fleet will deliver the lowest carbon dioxide emissions produced during an edition of the modern Olympics Games.

I think it is fair to remind that Toyota is one of the the automobile manufacturers who has made a bigger commitment to electric mobility. Their first hybrid vehicle came to the market in 1997, when almost nobody new that alternative vehicles to diesel and gasoline even existed. Right now, they are one of automakers which has more electrics and hybrids in their lineup. And for 2022, they expect to sell only these two kind of vehicles.

Here I leave you the link to the article which you can read to have a better idea of this story.

https://www.theverge.com/2019/8/23/20830105/toyota-electric-vehicles-2020-olympics-ev-scooter

Best regards,
Pablo García
6
Hello everybody,

When going through the work guide, one of the topics which specially stood out from the rest in my view was dealing with medical emergencies far away from the medical personnel, for example, the treatment of infections or other pathologies, which are worsened by the weightlessness (lack of gravity), in a hostile environment as space is. Although in the short run, a partial solution to this problem would be the incorporation of a doctor with the necessary tools and medicines in the crew to treat astronauts in case they need it, this proposal would be rather unfeasible in more complex or longer missions.

This issue really means a barrier on nowadays´ tripulated missions; therefore, I decided to focus my project on meeting this challenge. Then, trying to find an alternative and more sustainable system to the current one I came up with the idea of producing medicines “in situ” in order to decrease the weight and space (consequently decreasing the power consumed by the spacecraft) of the medicines taken from the Earth - whose properties might be lost due to the space conditions - , issue which would be magnified in longer missions and/or with bigger crews and even more in space colonization.

Inspired by the current ISRU projects related to the obtention of water, oxigen or minerals, I found scarce information related to the medicines used in space and no other similar projects mixing the ideas of ISRU and space pharmacology. Have you thought of similar projects or found relevant information to these? What is your view on this idea?

All the best,

Ruth Mora
7
Electric mobility / Re: Batteries
« Last post by PART-2-ES-Pablo on 22 August , 2019, 15:10:58 pm »
Hello everybody,

Today, I wanted to talk about an important matter regarding the topic of the batteries of electric vehicles. As you may know, right now, the average cost of an electric automobile is usually several thousands of dollars higher than an equivalent gasoline or diesel vehicle with the same features.

The reason for this higher market price is the manufacturing of the battery. All in all, the battery is the most special component of an electric vehicle. It is the most expensive item of the automobile, and it is also the one which takes longer to build. In fact, some automakers, apart from the general insurance of the vehicle, provide their buyers with a specific insurance for the battery.

Unfortunately, the high manufacturing cost of the battery has consequently made the final price of the vehicle more expensive than its combustion engine competitors. Therefore, many people who would like to own an electric automobile do not purchase one because they just can not afford it. However, the good news is that manufacturing cost of the batteries required for EVs is going down really fast.

Take this example to visualize the drop of the prices of the batteries. According to Bloomberg, for a midsize electric automobile manufactured in the United States in 2015, the cost of the battery represented about 57% of the total cost of the vehicle. Right now, in 2019, for the same kind of vehicle built in the same country it is 33%. And by 2025, the cost of the battery is expected to make up 20% of the total automobile price. By that date, it is forecasted that the average electric vehicle will be cheaper than its equivalent in gasoline or diesel, therefore, incentives will no longer be necessary to drive the transition to electric mobility forward.

The main reason for the drop of prices regarding the batteries is the standardization of the technology an infrastructure required to build them, as well as the successful testing of new materials suitable for the manufacturing of next generation batteries, such as graphene.

To sum up, we can declare that the long awaited equity of prices between electric and combustion engine vehicles is just around the corner due to cheaper battery costs. Therefore, we can expect a tremendous growth of electric vehicles sales during the first years of the upcoming decade.

I leave you a link to an article written by Bloomberg which features several graphs that explain very well how the prices of batteries and electric vehicles are decreasing.

https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2019-04-12/electric-vehicle-battery-shrinks-and-so-does-the-total-cost

Enjoy your day,
Pablo García
8
Electric mobility / Re: The future of e-mobility
« Last post by PART-2-ES-Pablo on 21 August , 2019, 18:07:32 pm »
Good day Eider,

I am so excited to see you have opened such an interesting and relevant topic as it is the future of electric mobility. You have contributed with a very important view of the expected increase of electric vehicles sales, as well as giving a perspective about the largest markets for EVs.

Nevertheless, I would like to expand the information about China and its electric vehicle industry. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), China is by far the most polluting country on Earth. Around 760,000 people are estimated to die there each year because of diseases which are strictly derived from air contamination.

Therefore, due to this unsustainable scenario, China is undergoing a revolutionary plan to reduce its contamination at all cost. This strategy addresses all the economic sectors implied, agriculture, energy production, industries and what we are all interested in, transportation.

The Chinese government is trying to market the electric vehicle as one of their key impulses towards a cleaner country. Since 2007, they have spent more than 60 billion dollars to create an entirely new electric vehicle industry. In fact, all this economic effort seems to have been successful. Currently, China is the number one market for electric vehicles in the world. In 2018, more electric cars were sold in China than in the rest of the world combined.

One of the reasons for such a huge quantity of units sold is that there are around a hundred Chinese electric automakers which sell their vehicles at a lower price point in comparison to foreign electric vehicles manufacturers. This is possible because China possesses more than 50% of the global reserves of the raw materials required to build the batteries of the EVs, therefore, no tariffs are applied to final product.

Another example to showcase the potential that China has as the leading market for electric vehicles is proved when we see that Tesla Motors has decided to open their very first foreign factory on Chinese soil.

With regard to the future, and according to Statista, the Chinese electric vehicles market is expected to grow 33.64% during the 6 following years with respect to the current market size. And by 2025, according to J.P Morgan, the total volume of the Chinese market will suppose 55% of the worldwide sales.

Along the next few years, China will also experiment a significant increase of the quantity of electric buses on the roads, as some of the the largest cities in the country, such as Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Nanjing and Hangzhou have predicted to achieve 100% electric public transport by 2020. As a matter of fact, the city of Shenzhen already has 16,000 electric buses.

Nevertheless, we must not declare the environmental problem in China solved. Although the Asian country is moving towards the right direction, it is still the most endangered country due to pollution and a great part of the Chinese will continue to suffer the drawbacks and health issues of living in such a polluted country.

I hope you find all this information about China useful for you to know how the electric vehicles market is developing. I leave you a link to an article written by the Fortune magazine which expands my previous explanation.

https://fortune.com/longform/electric-car-auto-industry-china/

Best regards,
Pablo García
9
Electric mobility / The future of e-mobility
« Last post by PART-2-ES-Eider on 21 August , 2019, 13:33:22 pm »
Hello everyone,

Today I am focusing my research on the future of electric mobility and I've found a lot of datum that I wanted to share with you.

Some time ago, approximately nine countries and a lot of cities announced that they would ban internal combustion engines by the year 2025, but, are these predictions going to be fulfilled? I do not believe that by 2025 internal combustion vehicles will be banned, I think that these commitments are precipitated and that our society is not yet ready to make the big leap to electric mobility. However, great advances are being made.

Electric car sales in 2018 were 1,6 million units in the world. It is a very low number compared to the 100 million cars manufactured that year. Nevertheless, in 2014, electric car sales did not reach half a million, that means that electric car sales have increased a 27% in four years. This is quite a rapid growth. As Bloomberg's analysts foresee, sales of 11 million units of electric vehicles are expected in 2025 and 30 million in 2030. Moreover, some researches claim that China will have 50% of the global sales of electric vehicles in 2025. Bloomberg's analysts also say that in 2040, batteries' price will drop to 70 dollars per kWh (63€ per kWh) and that there will be 559 million electric vehicles (buses, cars, motorbikes, etc...) in the world.

Although great advances are being made, problems are also coming up, such as the lack of battery factories and recharging infrastructures. On top of that, experts also warn that from 2020 and onwards there may be a lack of cobalt.

In conclusion, the use of electric vehicles will increase exponentially in a relatively short time, which is why our ability to generate clean energy and store it will be key in the future, because if we don't produce clean energy, we will not be able to reduce pollution.

I hope this information is useful.

Have a nice day,
Eider Del Hoyo (Spain)
10
News / Artificial Noise for Electric Vehicles
« Last post by PART-2-ES-Pablo on 20 August , 2019, 14:56:46 pm »
Hello partners,

Although these news are not precisely new, I wanted to share them with you because of their relevance and also because they were the top story in news channels in my home country, Spain.

“Fake noise will be added to new electric cars starting today in the EU”

On July 1st 2019, the European Union passed a law which requires new electric cars to emit a noise while they are being driven at a low speed. This law forces automobile manufacturers to install in their four-wheeled electric vehicles a device called Acoustic Vehicle Alert System (AVAS), which will produce a noise similar to a beep when the car moves at 19 kilometers per hour or if it is going in reverse.

The purpose of this step is to provide pedestrians with an extra safety feature. As electric vehicles do not produce any engine noise while they move, many people do not hear them while they cross the streets and consequently, there have been many accidents in which pedestrians have been run over.

Another good reason why this rule has been approved is that it would make crossing the street much easier for people with sight disabilities, because in an all- electric tomorrow, with all vehicles making no noise, it would be a pretty tough scenario for people who suffer these kind of problems.

The European Union is not the only institution which has approved this kind of legislation. In the United States, automakers have until September 2020 to provide their users with an equivalent noise-making system that is expected to work as the European device.

In my strictly personal opinion, I do not fully support this rule because I think that one of the greatest perks of electric vehicles is their ability not to produce any engine noise. And if now all electrics must produce an artificial sound, in my opinion, they would lose a part of their charm. Nevertheless, I also think about people with sight issues, who might need this kind of help to provide them a safe environment. Therefore, although I personally do not like this noise because I do not need it, I think that it will be a great aid for other people who do need it.

I leave you a link to the article of The Verge, one of the best websites for science and technology. You will also be able to find other news there regarding electric mobility.

https://www.theverge.com/2019/7/1/20676854/electric-cars-artificial-safety-noise-low-speeds-european-union-rules-2019-2021

I hope it was interesting for everybody.

Kind regards,
Pablo García
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