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1
Blockchain technology / Re: Key words to understand Blockchain
« Last post by VET-ES-JoseJavier on 15 September , 2019, 14:25:07 pm »
Hi David:

I would like to congratulate you for such a dictionary! I do not have any idea about possible words missing in this dictionary. Does anyone think something is missing?

Seizing the opportunity, I would like to formulate an open question about halving, a topic which has not been explored too much in this forum. According to most definitions, the purpose of the reduction of mining rewards aims to slow down the speed of blockchain discovery, so that there is a carest of coins and Bitcoin value increases (deflates) and miners end up receiving paradoxically more money and therefore have a profitable occupation. Nevertheless, it involves two main risks. Firstly, it concentrates the mining activity into very few hands (oligopoly), since most inefficient miners cannot afford to spend the same resources for decreasing rewards. Secondly, since halving is not a gradual process, but an abrupt process, bitcoin value tends to vary enormously depending on the proximity of the halving moment, what makes Bitcoin somehow untrustable.

Do you think Halving is doing more harm or good to Blockchain expansion?

Regards,
José Javier (Veteran)
2
Blockchain technology / Key words to understand Blockchain
« Last post by PART-5-ES-David on 12 September , 2019, 12:58:01 pm »
Hi everyone,

As you are imagining, the purpose of this topic is to explain and summarize most mentioned the concepts and those important to understand better blockchain technology. We will analyse how they are and how they are used in blockchain, the information will be supported with visual images to make it easier to understand.

  • Hash: The information contained in each block is registered in the form of a cryptographic hash, which allows its verification in a simple way, but makes it impossible to recreate the input data.
    A hash function is one that allows us to map data of an arbitrary size to data of a fixed size in a reasonable amount of time. The values generated by a hash function are also known as hash values, hash code or hash.
    The well-known Bitcoin uses the SHA-256 cryptographic hash function, which indicates that its hashes are a fixed size of 256 bits.
    https://ibb.co/B6mjq5p

  • Blocks: A block is a set of confirmed transactions and whose information has been included in the blockchain. Each block is part of the chain except the one known as the Genesis Block, which starts the chain. The blocks are formed by an alphanumeric code that links each of them with the previous one, a "package" of transactions and another alphanumeric code that links that block with the following one.
    https://ibb.co/JvLh7tD

  • Miners: The well-known miners are chips or computers that provide computing power to the Bitcoin network to verify the transactions that are carried out.
    Every time a block is ready to be added to the blockchain, the miners receive a warning, to add the block to the network it is only necessary for someone to calculate an unknown quantity called Proof of Work (PoW) and the add it to the block The first one to get it informs, verifies that everything is fine and gets a reward of bitcoins that changes over time. Finding this Proof of Work is not easy, so when the warning comes up that a new block wants to get into the blockchain, the miners start competing to see who can calculate the unknown quantity before and receive that reward. To calculate this Proof of Work it is necessary to apply many mathematical operations (the algorithm is called SHA 256, you can see how it works and use it in this webpage: https://www.movable-type.co.uk/scripts/sha256.html). As mining is to try millions of combinations, who has more computing capacity, can make more attempts and have more chances to get the prize. It's a matter of luck, and having more computer capacity is like buying more tickets for that lottery. This is why miners are high capacity devices.
    The existence of hash algorithms such as SHA 256 and the addition that many miners are trying to calculate the same number, are all layers of security for Blockchain, which make no one can fake a block, because all miners have the same block to add to the chain, and when someone gets the "X", everyone checks it.

  • Halving: This term refers to the reduction of the rewards that miners received. This reward for mining is reduced to half every four years

  • Nodes: Nodes: A node is a chip or computer connected to the bitcoin network that uses software that stores and distributes an updated real-time copy of the blockchain, thus creating an active part of the blockchain and one more layer of security for the net. There are three types of nodes:

       o Broadcast nodes: These are nodes that only exchange blockchain information provided by other person.

       o Full nodes: When you install a complete node software, in addition to having a more secure wallet, you are downloading a copy of the blockchain and you
          will become one more node in the network. So you will issue transactions, verify that the consensus rules are met and propagate those of the rest of the network.

       o Mining nodes: All miners need and must have a blockchain copy, in addition to operating the software miner. These nodes, not only dedicate themselves to
          mining and contribute to creating new blocks, they also issue and propagate transactions.

  • Wallets: Wallets store the private keys that are needed to access the balances registered at an address or public key of the corresponding blockchain and be able to exchange them.
    https://ibb.co/XsmpgBk

  • Smart Contract:  Smart Contracts are just like contracts in the real life. The only difference is that they are completely digital. This contracts are actually computer programs that are stored inside a blockchain which encode contractual agreements. Smart Contracts are self-executing with the terms of the agreement or operation directly written into lines of code, stored and executed on the blockchain computer. As a curiosity, this term was first used by Nick Szabo in 1997, long before Bitcoin was created.
    https://ibb.co/zhLjrGk][url]https://ibb.co/zhLjrGk[/url]

  • Nonce: Nonce is an abbreviation for "number only used once." This unique or nonce number is a random number issued by the miners through the Proof of Work (PoW) that serves to authenticate the current block and prevent the information from being reused or changed without doing all the work again.

  • Cryptojacking: This is known as the use of remote computers to work by mining cryptocurrencies. It is usually done through malware, a virus infects a device and starts mining, leaving the device unused by the requirement to the CPU.

I hope this information to be useful. Do not hesitate to ask any question about vocabulary here!

Kinds regards,
David Corral Pazos
3
Search for extraterrestrial resources / Re: Asteroid mining
« Last post by PART-3-ES-Ruth on 11 September , 2019, 22:20:07 pm »
Hello!

This new topic seems incredibly interesting because of the countless asteroids (some of them quite near to the planet Earth) which contain a wealth of minerals, ores and volatile elements (water, methane, nitrogen...), indispensable for both the Earth´s economy and space trips.

Planetary Resources is working on the development of the world's first commercial deep space exploration program in order to identify and unlock water resources in asteroids. Nowadays, water (for life support functions and rocket propellant) is the main objetive of this first asteroid exploration mission as it is the first thing needed to create a civilization in space.

Here is the link containing the full explanation of the data-collecting mission thanks to which Planetary Resources will design and build the first commercial mine in space:
https://www.planetaryresources.com/missions/arkyd-301/

Kind regards,
Ruth Mora
4
News / Frankfurt Motor Show
« Last post by PART-2-ES-Pablo on 11 September , 2019, 16:07:45 pm »
Hello guys,

If you are enthusiasts of the automotive world you may know that during this week there is a huge event for the industry. I am talking about the Frankfurt Motor Show, the most important showcase for automakers along with the Genève Motor Show. This year´s edition is full of novelties, and as you might guess, it is also full of new electric vehicles that have just been presented. In fact, almost 50% of the vehicles showcased at this event are electric. Therefore, I wanted to share with you some of these new models.

In my opinion, the most important vehicles are the ones thought to be the top selling models, because they will be the ones that will be able make electric mobility reach the masses. This is why I wanted to begin with Volkswagen. The German giant has presented the ID.3, its first electric model with an entire platform dedicated to its manufacture. It is a compact hatchback that will be priced under 30,000 € and will get to the market in the spring of 2020.

Another car that is expected to follow the lead of the ID.3 and that will be priced at similar price point is the Mini Cooper SE. An excellent choice for people who are willing to use an electric vehicle in an urban environment.
 
On the other hand, if we take a look at the premium manufacturers, we can see that some progress has been made too. German automaker Mercedes-Benz has announced some new interesting models such as the Mercedes Benz EQV, a luxurious passenger van that will be the first electric van in this segment.

Finally, the legendary supercar automaker, Lamborghini, has presented the Sian. A sportscar that will feature an electric motor that will help the main V12 engine. This is Lamborghini´s first step towards electrification.

If you want to read something else about the 2019 Frankfurt Motor Show I leave you some links below.

https://www.autoexpress.co.uk/car-news/frankfurt-motor-show/107487/frankfurt-motor-show-2019-latest-news-and-live-coverage

https://www.carmagazine.co.uk/car-news/motor-shows-events/frankfurt/frankfurt-motor-show-preview-a-z-of-all-the-new-cars/

https://edition.cnn.com/business/live-news/frankfurt-motor-show-2019/index.html

All the best,
Pablo García
5
Electric mobility / Re: Electric Automobiles Safety
« Last post by PART-2-ES-Pablo on 11 September , 2019, 13:15:57 pm »
Hello Matthias,

Thank you very much for showing this interest in this topic. It is something that makes me really glad. Now I will answer your doubts.

The law which establishes the whole legislation about the AVAS is regulation 540/2014. In this text, it is specified the exact quantity of decibels that must be produced by electric automobiles. That quantity varies depending on the kind of vehicle. For example, a large-tonnage vehicle such as semi-truck, must emit a louder noise than a sedan.
 
The regulation classifies the vehicles into two categories. Vehicles used for the carriage of passengers, and vehicles used for the carriage of goods.  The decibels emitted by the vehicles go from 68 in the lowest case to 82 in the highest.

If anybody wants to check this out, I leave you a link to the document of regulation.The level of decibels that every vehicle must produce is explained in the annex III, on pages 32 and 33.

https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32014R0540&rid=2

Getting to the point of your question, the noises that each electric vehicle must produce are proportional to the noises that an equivalent combustion engine vehicle should emit. For example, an electric SUV with 400 horsepower should produce a noise a bit less loud than a combustion engine SUV with approximately the same horsepower. Therefore, as the sound would be similar in both cases that noise would be as “safe” as the one generated by an equivalent combustion engine automobile.

Regarding your second question, the theory you have raised makes a lot of sense. If this were the case of a combustion engine car the extra weight would suppose a serious danger for vehicle because as you said it would take much longer to brake and stop the vehicle.

Nevertheless, with electric vehicles the braking is much more instantaneous than in a conventional automobile. As soon as you take your foot off the pedal the vehicle begins to decelerate drastically. In fact, I have recently read in a study that the braking of an electric vehicle is 2.5 times faster than the braking of a combustion engine automobile. The combined braking power of an electric motor and the own brakes should be more than enough to stop the vehicle in a fraction of time if it is necessary. However, the possibility of avoiding a crash is something that also depends strongly on the reaction of the driver.

I hope I have solved your doubts.

Kind regards,
Pablo García
6
News / Breaking news: Space is a new part of the European Commission
« Last post by VET-A-Matthias on 11 September , 2019, 07:43:01 am »
Hi guys,

Yesterday has been a pretty big day for the European space policy. The German politician Ursula von der Leyen, in her new role as president of the European commission, announced that the French commissioner Sylvie Goulard would be responsible for Defense and Space affairs. This seems a little bit harsh, since space cannot be militarized at any cost, as is stated in many treaties. It is generally assumed that Mrs. Goulard will be one of the designated commissioners facing a lot of opposition in the parliament.

But considering the USA have started to invest vast sums of money in space affairs under Donald Trump, this seems like a legit reason for the European Union to not lose its important role. It will be important, however, to not push the measurements too hard, since this might cause a lot of trouble in diplomatic relationships.

Please leave your opinion on this matter!

All the best,
Matthias
7
Electric mobility / Re: Infrastructure
« Last post by PART-2-ES-Eider on 10 September , 2019, 20:53:50 pm »
Hello everyone,

I give a lot of importance to numbers, so this is what my post will be of. I will speak about how many charging points there are in Europe.

In Europe, there are 170,149 public charging stations. However, almost 76% of them are located in 4 countries, the Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK. The Netherlands has approximately 122,000 charging points, taking into account public and private ones. As I said before, in Europe, there are 170,149 public charging stations, so it is impressive to know that a not very big country as it is the Netherlands, has 28% of all charging points in Europe.

On one hand, after the Netherlands, Germany is the second country with more charging stations in Europe. Germany has 22% of all charging points in Europe. Then we have France. This is the third country in this list. It has about 23.000 public charging points, this means 14% of all charging points in Europe. After France is the UK with 13.000 charging stations. On the other hand, the countries with less charging points in Europe are Greece, Bulgaria and Romania.

To finish my post, I would like to give you some extra information. You may think it's not very important, but as I got it by myself, I'm proud of it. This week I'm on an exchange program in Marl (a city in Germany) and I have gone to talk to the mayor and asked him some questions about electric mobility and renewable energies in Marl. I think this has been a good opportunity to learn more about this topic in a country different from mine. In Marl, there are lots of windmills near the city because it's very windy. For that reason, my first question was about renewable energies. I asked him if renewable energies are used more than other types of energy to supply the city. The mayor told me that, even though there are a lot of windmills, they aren't enough to supply the energy demand of the entire city. Because of that, the energy produced by the windmills is only used in public places. The houses in this city don't use renewable energies, however, I've seen that some houses have solar panels on the roofs. The other question I asked was how many charging points there were in the city. Surprisingly, the mayor told me that there weren't any charging stations in Marl. This really surprised me because Germany is the second country with more charging points in Europe. The mayor told me that as charging stations are very expensive and as there are less than 10 electric cars in Marl, installing some charging stations is not a priority.

I think that the city council should invest in charging stations because if there aren't any in Marl, nobody will like to buy an electric car.

I hope you have found this information interesting and helpful for your essays.

Best regards,  :)
Eider Del Hoyo (Spain)
8
Diagnosis and gene therapy / Diagnosis
« Last post by PART-1-ES-Antonio on 10 September , 2019, 20:39:16 pm »
Hello everyone. I am Antonio, from Spain.

I was thinking about what to write on the forum, when I just realized that our topic is called "diagnosis and gene therapy". So the idea of writting about diagnosis came to my mind. That is why I started to search and gather information about this topic.

First of all I would like to give a definition about what is the diagnosis, something that I find pretty obvious. According to the wordreference,"the diagnosis is the act of identify a disease".So when I read this I thought, why not to mix gene therapy, that is in what most of us are basing our projects, and the diagnosis. That was when I just found an article about a research done by Kiana Aran, where she explain how her chip is able to identify a mutation in everyone's genome in a matter of minutes using CRISPR Technollogy.

Now I am going to detail how does this technollogy work:
First of all, the chip is based equally on Nano-Technollogy and on Bio-Technollogy. The chip works with Graphene, that is a nano-material composed by carbon atoms, so it is as thin as an atom. Also like this material is quite sensitive, it is able to detect tiny load variations, this open us thousands of doors to work on. And this is in what is based the chip, on recognizing the load variations that take place when the DNA sequence sticks to CRISPR-CAS 9 molecule, which is located directly on the graphene.

In other words, the chip is made up of a thin layer of Graphene, where the CRISPR-CAS 9 molecule is attached, like this molecule has a neutral charge, the graphene does not interact with it. Like most of us know, the CRISPR-CAS 9 molecule is going to search mutations on that DNA chain and when it is detected, the molecule will stick directly on the DNA sequence. This will create a load variation, and this will create that the Graphene detect it and react with it . This process will not take longer than a few minutes.

But most of you, could be asking why this technollogy is that important, if we can do the same with a PCR.
The answer to this question is quitte simple, due to the fact that the PCR takes around 2 hours only to create the copies that in a later process will be use to detect the mutation, so this could long  hours or even days. And this technollogy only needs one simple copy of DNA and wait for about 5 minutes.

https://www.synthego.com/blog/crispr-electronic-biosensor

I hope you are having a great return to rutine.

Antonio Asensio Martin ;Madrid, Spain.

 
9
Electric mobility / Re: Electric Automobiles Safety
« Last post by VET-A-Matthias on 10 September , 2019, 19:02:45 pm »
Good evening, everyone,

Pablo, thanks so much for this interesting topic! After my friend José Javier already brought up some questions, here are two more that just came to mind.

1) Yes, after the new policy by the EU, the noise of electric cars will increase on purpose, increasing safety on the roads in the process. But who decides when "loud" becomes "loud enough for safety" or "too loud"? This seems like a matter of opinion thing only and should therefore be only decided by a larger group of people, right?
2) As you brilliantly explained, the strategical positioning of the battery in an electric car and the surrounding titanium hull make the entire battery pretty safe from any damage. But as you also mentioned, the weight massively increases, therefore making braking in emergency situations more difficult, if my basic understanding of physics is right. That does increase the danger of a bigger hit in case of a sudden crash, right? What are the plans about that?


All the best,

Matthias
10
News / Re: Socios.com
« Last post by PART-5-ES-David on 10 September , 2019, 16:55:14 pm »
Hi everyone,

Before starting, let me recognize the importance of this section, as news indicates the uses that are currently being given to Blockchain Technology. Thanks to this, we can see at what level we are reaching, and even more important, all that we have left to do.

Having said this, I find very interesting the initiative that Atlético de Madrid has taken, because with the Socios.com platform they can meet their mans in a way that benefits both parts, fans can do surveys that give information to the clubs and also receive “Fan Totems” that can be redeemed for many prizes, from cryptocurrencies, merchandising, privates lotteries…

In addition, they also contribute to the development of Blockchain Technology, Socios.com is the first mobile application of blockchain technology for sports and entertainment fans. This also may serve as inspiration for other teams to start doing something similar. Another important thing is that thanks to this initiative, many companies will realize what Blockchain Technology is, something that is very important because, from my point of view, this technology is not as well-known as it should.

Finally, I would like to end this reply with some questions, so we can all think about them.
Was it really necessary to use Blockchain Technology for this?
Could we have used a simpler technology and obtained a similar result?


Kinds regards,
David Corral Pazos

P.S.
I leave you here the link where you can download Socios.com so you can try it and have a more complete experience. This application will be available soon on Android and Apple. Also remember that this application has another section of eSports that may be more interesting for some of you. ;D

https://www.socios.com
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