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MIXING the five lines

MIXING the five lines
« on: 31 August , 2018, 19:15:22 pm »
Hi, I am Alejandro Bravo, from line 5, TICS. I was thinking the other day that our topic, Cybernetic prostheses, could be mixed with, for example, line 4, nanotechnology, helping us to develop an even more advanced idea of how we could make our daily life prostheses accesible for people whose bodies reject the materials these prostheses are made of, or maybe it could also be mixed with line 2, energy and environment, helping us to create prostheses that are eco friendly and doesnt damage our environment, and of course, it could also be mixed with line 1, biosciences. So I come up with the idea of taking some information from our respective lines and try to somehow mix in order to get to something even bigger, because being of one line doesnt mean you ONLY have to know about that specific topic. Leave a comment with your opinion about this and maybe with something you find interesting about your line and think it can be usefull for other ones.
Alejandro Bravo
Line 5 TICS

Re: MIXING the five lines
« Reply #1 on: 31 August , 2018, 19:20:58 pm »
I have found this interesting website that is called live forever club and it talks about different topics related with this main one. There is a part in which it talks about how prostheses can affect if we want to live forever.
I leave you here the link:  http://liveforever.club/augmentation/prostheses/

Re: MIXING the five lines
« Reply #2 on: 03 September , 2018, 15:56:36 pm »
Hi Alex! Hi everybody!

I think your idea about including all lines is very witty. My line is "Space Trash" and I want to explain how the rest of lines can be useful for my line:

Line 1- Living forever: when you are in the space you can harm you and in the space there aren´t doctors or nurses. This line help astronauts through "telemedicine". Four times each year the NASA launches astronauts and cosmonauts to the ISS. The gravity conditions in the space are so different to the Earth so some doctors through a screen help them with their problems about their muscles or bones, fluid distribution and inmune function. We keep in mind that in the space you have to change your routines and you have to acostumbrate to other type of food, without taking into account their mental health can play a dirty trick on them.
I have a question and is how the space affect menstruation? I´m sure bioscience could help girls astronauts with this "problem". My understanding is that women take birth control pills but in the space will it be not a problem for their health?.
If you want to investigate more about that, here you have some links:

Line 2- Distributed Power Generation: we know that all spaceships have solar panels because when the Sun heat them they can use renewable energies to provide them. But when they are in the face there isn´t light, they use the solar energy to supply them but, there is a moment that this energy runs out and the satellites have to use combustible to continue sending some information to the Earth. I think this line: "energy and environment", could help to prolong the use of energy solar with the help of technology.
I had the opportunity to visit INTA and the experts explained me that sometimes the satellites´softwares reformat because they change, due to other circumstances, their binary system and in the Earth they must active another software to receive the information. Maybe this line could improve the softwares´coding system.
You can investigate more in these websites:

Line 4- Nano-tech and medicine: This line I consider is the most important with a view to improve the future because if we progress the medicines or space suits, the astronauts will not depend so much on doctors or nurses through "telemedicine" and maybe they could stay in the space more time, in this way the agencies save to investigate more because they don´t spend too much on space flights with the aim to come back the astronauts.
Maybe with the help of Nano-tech and medicine we could go before we think to Mars because of an improve of medicine could be useful when astronauts will be sick, but this line not only help the future colony in Mars. Nanotechnology could help develop new projects to finish with orbital debris.
I have found a website about how nanotechnology could be useful to NASA:

Line 5- Cybernetic prostheses: I think this line not have a strong relationship with space, maybe it could be useful when an astronaut has to retire due an accident, this science: "information and communication technology" can give hope of a reinstatement of this astronaut.

Finally I want to ask a question about line 4 and line 5: Could robots substitute astronauts in space, like in ISS?
Here you have some websites, I want read your opinion about this question, could it be feasible?

Best regards,
Elsa Blanco Bausela (Spain)

Re: MIXING the five lines
« Reply #3 on: 04 September , 2018, 18:06:06 pm »
First of all, thank you Elsa for giving your opinion and bringing up this very interesting topics. I confess that I am only able to reply to the questions related to my line because I do not have the needed knoweledge in the others, even I would like to.
It is true that our lines do not have much in common at first look, and I will leave this for now, but I will try to find out what things do they have in common.
What I think is very interesting is the last question you asked ("Could robots substitute astronauts in space, like in ISS?). I investigated a bit about this topic and found the robot you are talking about. It is called Simon and it is built by a group of enterprises, between them IBM. This robot is like SIRI in iPhone but in the ISS. It gives you conversation, takes data from its enviroment and adapt to this stimuli, thanks to his multiple motors and sensors.
I leave you a video of Simon in which it is explained with more detail how it works: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KnpJI3WeiBg
I have also read the websites you adviced and there are all types of opinions about the topic. Some people say robots are the best solution for sending to space due to that they don't have to drink, eat, go to the bathroom and if the robot encounters any problem, its cheaper to repair it or even make another one. But humans also have good points according to some people. They have adaptive limbs which allow them (us, I am also a human ;D) to adapt to the terrain and above all, they have intelligence, this intelligence allows them to react inmediatly to any situation instead of wait for a radio signal sent from Earth like robots have to.
My personal opinion is that there are things that are easier for robots, and if we send a robot to space we are not worried, because we are not risking a life. For helping humans, robots are perfect but i don't think they are prepared yet for assuming the leadership in the space race. And one thing is true, like I read in one of the websites Elsa provided us with, if we send a robot to the moon it will be a very big scientific achieve, but if we send a human, the whole world will be watching it.
I will also leave you here a webpage with more pros and drawbacks of humans and robots sent to space: https://www.wired.com/2012/04/space-humans-vs-robots/

Kind regards,
Alejandro Bravo Alberca(LINE 5[TICS])(Spain)

Re: MIXING the five lines
« Reply #4 on: 05 September , 2018, 13:09:35 pm »
Hi there everyone,

To start with, I'd like to thank Alejandro for his idea of starting up this discussion, as well as Elsa for her very interesting contributions to the debate.

While reading one of the articles Elsa shared I came across the CNT director Meyya Meyapapan's opinion and hopes for Nanotech when it comes to space and the so-called "Next Giant Leap" and how it could be a turning point in space exploration.

"[We] try to focus on technologies that could yield useable products within a few years to a decade," says Meyya Meyyappan. "For example, we're looking at how nano-materials could be used for advanced life support, DNA sequencers, ultra-powerful computers, and tiny sensors for chemicals or even sensors for cancer."

What really caught my attention was the last bit, when she mentioned "ultra-powerful computers and tiny sensors". On the one hand, I believe that our understanding of Nanotech is not nearly as advanced just yet as it would need to be for such computers to be extremely more powerful than conventional computers, because if I understood it correctly, she is talking about “quantum computing” and the “quantum leap” we are soon going to see take place before our very eyes.  However, this is truly an unnerving notion: we really seem to be on the brink of quantum computers, in fact, computers like this already exist, it’s just that they need some final touch-ups. As IBM’s (the company that laid the foundations for the computer revolution) quantum computer researcher Jay Gambetta would put it: “We have this device that is more complicated than you can simulate on a classical computer, but it’s not yet controllable to the precision that you could do the algorithms you know how to do.” (1)

At some point of the not so distant future, we may be able to operate with these computers that use quantum principles and phenomena such as superposition and entanglement and fully understand their inner-workings and capabilities. To put it simply, an analogue of how superposition works would be to say that if you were to throw a coin (in reality this would be an electron) up into the air and tell whether it landed “heads” or “tails”, there would be an intermediate state that is neither of these two stages, but a combination of both. Similarly, entanglement in the quantum world can be understood by throwing two coins into the air and having an intertwined answer of both. As a result, quantum computers can handle more than binary information. There’s a very useful video that tackles these concepts (2)

But why are quantum computers really on the verge of revolutionizing classical computing?
Roughly speaking, a quantum computer with just a few hundred qubits would be able to perform more calculations simultaneously than there are atoms in the known universe. For instance, they would have applications for the fields of remote sensing and secure satellite communications or cryptography. Such computers could also be able to simulate the behavior of matter down to the atomic level. There are a ton of other wide-ranging applications I prompt you to investigate about.
Ultimately, you may still be wondering: why are Quantum computers inextricably linked to Nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is an application of Quantum physics, which has paved the way for quantum computing: the understanding of things in the nanoscale such as atoms, electrons, molecules and so on is why both fields are interrelated.

As you no doubt will have noticed, the uses for quantum computers are far beyond those of space exploration.

I hope all lines have a chance to talk about some of the advantages this technology would pose for their particular branch of Science.

Thanks for taking the time to read and do not hesitate to share your own point of view and information on the topic,

Raquel Novel Ortega, Colegio SIL, Spain

1.  https://www.technologyreview.com/s/610250/serious-quantum-computers-are-finally-here-what-are-we-going-to-do-with-them/    (MIT Technology Review- Serious Quantum Computing)

2.    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OWJCfOvochA&t=24s   (Quantum Computing Expert Explains One Concept in 5 different levels of difficulty)

Re: MIXING the five lines
« Reply #5 on: 14 September , 2018, 20:50:28 pm »
Good evening from Spain,

I'd like to pick up where I left off on the last post and shed a little light on what the NASA Ames Center for Nanotechnology (CNT) refers to as "tiny sensors for chemicals and sensors for cancer in space explorations”.

However, I would like to introduce beforehand all of you who don’t know all that much about Nanotechnology to its most simple definition: it is the application of the knowledge acquired by looking at nature from the perspective of the nanoscale (nanometer=the billionth part of a meter), and thus manipulating atoms and molecules with the intention of producing entirely new systems, materials, devices and structures from the properties that crop up in this scale. For that matter, I have come to realize that biology is at the core of Nanotech: atoms, molecules, are, after all, part of nature, as well as nature’s most sophisticated way of expression. Considering that life itself is the ultimate example of Nanotech, the possibilities are exciting, because we can take these “building blocks”, like functional molecular structures such as DNA molecules, proteins and so on, to produce systems that are more efficient: this new approach is regarded as bio-nanotech. Once this idea is settled, it wouldn’t appear so striking that some new designs are based on these molecular machines or structures as starting points.

Take, for instance, the new sensors and information storage devices from the Ames Research Center (NASA’s center in Silicon Valley) which are able to detect single molecules of nucleic acids and rapidly decode the genetic outline of a wide range of model organisms from yeast to humans, thus identifying the organism. These sensors hold the potential to easily replace the existing DNA sequencing technology. A more specific example of this would be the (a) Nanopore Project, which puts the revolutionary properties the materials acquire when reduced to the nanoscale and use them when a strand of DNA is drawn through a nanopore. The nucleotides in the DNA that go through the pore each react differently, creating a distinct “signature” disruption as they pass through and this serves as a way of identifying the genetic sequence. (1)

Similarly, another example of what is being done at the Ames Research Center would be (b) DNA microarrays that contain the genomes of many species produced by a super-computer at the Center. This tool’s purpose is to investigate genetic responses of the organisms, whose genome is registered, to environmental change, like different levels of gravity (as that of the ISS).

Nonetheless, when it comes to superior and novel nanotechnological advances with higher analytical performance, capacity to learn and lower reagent costs, it’s worth mentioning the case of programmable (c) bio-nano-chips.These devices would serve the purpose of providing an up to date analysis of the body’s state from in vitro samples such as brush biopsy for oral cancer (given the radiation and microgravity in outer space) risk assessment (2), plasma, etc; for instance. They work by translating the information of key biomarkers in the organism into recognizable or actionable signatures; helping patients (in this case, astronauts on the Space station or a space exploration) better manage their own healthcare. Some of these systems combine powerful machine-learning algorithms with unique chemical sensing and biosensing capabilities. (3)

Another example of such systems would involve Carbon Nanotubes, which work particularly well inside the organism because they are one of the essential bioelements and therefore biocompatible and also, because of the size, the electrode is reduced and the system has more sensitivity, higher temporal resolution and so on. (4)

While there are some risks involved with the loss of a patient-doctor relationship and potential for faulty diagnosis, these systems certainly provide a great opportunity for astronauts and other patients to take action on their own and act independently when they simply can’t reach a doctor.

What’s more, a chemical sensor the Ames developed using nanotubes is scheduled to fly a demonstration mission into space aboard a Navy rocket next year. This tiny sensor can detect as little as a few parts per billion of specific chemicals, like toxic gases, making it useful for both space exploration and homeland defense.

Finally, some of this kind of sensors are currently involved in missions like the (d) Rover Curiosity’s Mars Science Laboratory, providing tools for the CheMin (Chemical and Mineralogy field) to identify and quantify minerals and soils as well as ChemCam, a rock-zapping laser that observes the resulting flash through a telescope to detect more chemical elements.

On the whole, the advances related to Nanotech seem very promising for space exploration because by incorporating nanoscale elements in diagnostics devices electronic chips will detect a specific biomarker signature with extremely high sensitivity. It goes without saying that the use of this technologies goes far beyond space, however, I believe this is a very interesting application for them. Most of these, nevertheless, will probably be used on missions before they are affordable in the market, make of that what you will.

Thanks again for your time and dedication as well as interesting points of view

I'm looking forward to hearing back from you and your thoughts on this debate,

Kind regards,

Raquel Novel Ortega, Colegio SIL, Barcelona

Here are the links to the references I made before:

(1) https://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/research/technology-onepagers/ames_nanotech.html (Nanotechnology at Ames)

(2) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2278308/ (brush biopsy)

(3)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5441161/ (Innovative Programmable Bio-Nano-Chip Digitizes Biology)

(4)https://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/research/technology-onepagers/ultrasensitive_biochip.html    (Ultrasensitive Label-Free Electronic Biochips on Carbon Nanotube Arrays)