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« on: 13 June , 2019, 22:52:22 pm »
Hi everyone,
how are you? I hope you are fine and interested in batteries.
In fact i found for you some useful and practical links and files that ou can use for  our essays.
Here you have  a link
Environmental Management Challenges with Electric Vehicle Batteries
I add to the post two files.

Re: Batteries
« Reply #1 on: 12 August , 2019, 13:44:33 pm »
Hello Giovanni,

The files you have shared contain excellent information and have been very useful to me. However, I would like to add even more information about batteries.

To begin with, I would like to say that I believe that batteries will be decisive in the future of electric vehicles.

We all know that a battery is an energy accumulator that an electric vehicle needs to move and work. They are an essential part of EVs, and for that reason, much of the manufacturing process of this type of vehicles revolves around batteries.

When analyzing a battery, we have to take into account several aspects: energy density, power, efficiency, capacity, life cycles and charging speed.

-Energy density is expressed in Wh/kg (Watt-hour/kilogram) and is the amount of energy that the battery can accumulate. This influences the autonomy of the vehicle, because the more energy density it has, the greater the autonomy.

-Battery power is also expressed in Wh/kg (Watt-hour/kilogram) and refers to the ability to provide power in the discharge process.

-Regarding efficiency, it should be noted that a vehicle's battery will be more efficient when it travels as long as possible, consuming as little as possible.

-Life cycles are the charge and discharge cycles that batteries hold. Batteries often lose capacity with use and recharges.

-And finally, charging speed. This is the time it takes for the battery to charge, although this varies depending on the type of charging system you use.

I really hope this information was useful.  :)

Best regards,
Eider Del Hoyo (Spain)

Re: Batteries
« Reply #2 on: 14 August , 2019, 18:39:11 pm »
Hello guys,

As you have opened a new thread to discuss about batteries I thought it would be nice to talk about battery degradation, which is a phenomenon that happens to any kind of rechargeable battery.

The degradation of a battery is the gradual loss of the quantity of energy measured in kilowatts per hour that it can store. As I said before, this is not something exclusive to electric vehicles, it occurs to any other item which works with a rechargeable battery. A good example of this happening are smartphones. If you use the same phone for several years, you might notice that the battery does not last as long as when you purchased the device.

This might seem like a major issue in order to acquire an electric vehicle, but there is no need to panic. Although the drop of kWh that the battery is able to save can be pronounced at the beginning of its use, it tends to stabilize. The average battery degradation of an electric automobile after been driven 300,000 kilometers is only 6% compared to the moment when the battery pack was manufactured. And according to recent studies, it would take more than 20 years of average use of the automobile to lose 20% of its energy storage capability. Therefore, unless you are hard user of your EV, you will hardly be able to notice that your range is actually decreasing.

All this process is due to certain chemical reactions which take place within the battery pack during the life cycles it has. It is mainly produced because of the electrons flow which goes from the charging point to the battery itself.

If somebody is interested in learning about this topic with many more details and from a scientific point of view, I am going to leave a link to a video that you can check  out.


Do you think battery degradation is a big disadvantage for electric mobility? Feel free to share your opinion.

Best regards,
Pablo García

Re: Batteries
« Reply #3 on: 16 August , 2019, 13:17:39 pm »
Hello Pablo,

I'm going to give my opinion about the issue you have talked about.

I don't see battery degradation as a huge disadvantage, because as you have said, the degradation process is very slow and for you to realize that you have lost storage capacity and range, several years have to pass.

As batteries are the most expensive part of the vehicle, many people are indeed worried about battery degradation.
Battery degradation depends on many things, environmental and load conditions for the batteries during use, are some examples.

To prolong batteries' life expectancy, BMS (battery management system) is the key. The objective of BMS is to protect the battery, prolong its life expectancy and to maintain it in good conditions to function.
As battery management system is another very extensive topic to talk about, I leave a link in case you are interested in knowing more: https://www.mpoweruk.com/bms.htm

To finish my post with, I would like to say that batteries are progressing a lot and from my point of view, in several years, the problem of battery degradation will be almost solved. Precisely, today I've read a piece of news which talked about a company named XNRGI that is developing a new technology for the manufacture of lithium batteries, called X-PowerChip, which is capable of creating millions of microbatteries printed on silicon panels of 20x20 microns. This technology will increase energy density and durability, and will also reduce manufacturing costs. If you want to know more, visit this website: https://xnrgi.com/

I hope this information was useful.  :)

Have a nice day,
Eider Del Hoyo (Spain)

Re: Batteries
« Reply #4 on: 16 August , 2019, 22:05:47 pm »
Hey guys, it's Matthias from Austria once again.

With the debates that have been going on about this topic for a couple of days now, I want to point out you're doing an absolutely amazing job. It's great to see you throw around arguments I don't even understand like it's as simple to understand as putting on ones shoes.

Please, please, please keep going like this, you're papers must be a read like a Christopher Nolan movie, making you feel super smart while watching it.

All the best and good night,

Re: Batteries
« Reply #5 on: 19 August , 2019, 13:27:33 pm »
Hello everyone,

I have been looking for innovative batteries that will solve problems of electric mobility such as poor range or charging times, and I have come across a webpage with some interesting suggestions.

As this website talks about many different types of batteries, I have selected some of them to explain in my post.

Gold nanowire batteries. Researchers at the University of California Irvine have been studying Nanowire batteries. This type of batteries always broke down with 5,000 to 6,000 recharge cycles, but recently, they have discovered that electrolyte gel-coated gold nanowire filaments withstood 200,000 charge cycles. After all these charging cycles, the battery didn't show any degradation.

Grabat graphene batteries. The Grabat Graphenano Energy company has developed a battery that could allow electric vehicles to have a range of 800 km. This new graphene technology allows creating batteries with higher energy density, shorter charging time, lighter and safer. The company states that this kind of batteries can charge and discharge 33 times faster than lithium-ion.

Foam batteries. Prieto Battery company has developed a battery with a copper foam substrate. This foam battery won't be flammable, will be cheaper, have a longer life and charge faster.

Aluminium-air battery. The Phinergy company developed an aluminium-air battery that allowed a 1700km range to an electric car. This battery is lightweight, non-flammable and non-explosive, sustainable and uses low-cost materials.

If you want to know more about these batteries visit the website I mentioned at the beginning of my post. In this website, there are even more batteries than the ones I have explained: https://www.pocket-lint.com/gadgets/news/130380-future-batteries-coming-soon-charge-in-seconds-last-months-and-power-over-the-air

I hope this information was interesting and useful.

Best regards,
Eider Del Hoyo (Spain)

Re: Batteries
« Reply #6 on: 20 August , 2019, 10:57:59 am »
Hello guys,

I wanted to address an important matter regarding the topic of batteries. As you know, most of the batteries which EVs use to power their engine are made out of lithium. Lithium is a chemical element which has the property of being able to retain energy throughout several chemical reactions. As you may also know lithium batteries are not only present in electric vehicles, smartphones and laptops are powered by these kind of batteries too.

Right now the demand for lithium is gigantic, and this demand is growing quickly as the transition towards electric mobility is going on. Therefore, there is a huge debate happening on the media about wether the Earth has enough lithium reserves to satisfy our needs or not.

According to a United States Geological Survey published in 2014, the world is estimated to contain around 13.5 million tons of lithium. And currently, the annual extraction and production of lithium is 36,000 tons worldwide.

The total quantity of lithium available in the world is a very OK figure, however, the extraction rhythm of this material is not so good. Currently, only a third of all the lithium produced in the world is dedicated to the manufacturing of electric vehicles batteries, which leads us to about 666,000 automobiles build. Right now, this should be enough to satisfy the need for EVs, but the problem will come whenever the demand skyrockets, because the current lithium production would not even reach 10% of the expected demand.

Another supply problem comes with the fact that the Earth is expected to provide us with enough lithium for 750 million electric automobiles with 90 kWh battery packs, which is the number of vehicles calculated to be manufactured within the following 17 years. After that period of time, and having built that quantity of cars, lithium would be over.

Nevertheless, not everything looks so catastrophic regarding lithium. Thankfully, this is an extremely recyclable material, so old and used lithium could be used to manufacture brand new vehicles.

Other good news is that batteries are expected to be built with other materials with less possibilities of shortages, such as graphene.

I leave you some links if you want to read some more about the lithium topic.




To sum up, I would like to conclude saying that it is possible to have an all-electric future if mankind is responsible and uses well the resources which are available, we just need to think how to use these materials in a more conscious way.

Have a nice day,
Pablo García

Re: Batteries
« Reply #7 on: 22 August , 2019, 15:10:58 pm »
Hello everybody,

Today, I wanted to talk about an important matter regarding the topic of the batteries of electric vehicles. As you may know, right now, the average cost of an electric automobile is usually several thousands of dollars higher than an equivalent gasoline or diesel vehicle with the same features.

The reason for this higher market price is the manufacturing of the battery. All in all, the battery is the most special component of an electric vehicle. It is the most expensive item of the automobile, and it is also the one which takes longer to build. In fact, some automakers, apart from the general insurance of the vehicle, provide their buyers with a specific insurance for the battery.

Unfortunately, the high manufacturing cost of the battery has consequently made the final price of the vehicle more expensive than its combustion engine competitors. Therefore, many people who would like to own an electric automobile do not purchase one because they just can not afford it. However, the good news is that manufacturing cost of the batteries required for EVs is going down really fast.

Take this example to visualize the drop of the prices of the batteries. According to Bloomberg, for a midsize electric automobile manufactured in the United States in 2015, the cost of the battery represented about 57% of the total cost of the vehicle. Right now, in 2019, for the same kind of vehicle built in the same country it is 33%. And by 2025, the cost of the battery is expected to make up 20% of the total automobile price. By that date, it is forecasted that the average electric vehicle will be cheaper than its equivalent in gasoline or diesel, therefore, incentives will no longer be necessary to drive the transition to electric mobility forward.

The main reason for the drop of prices regarding the batteries is the standardization of the technology an infrastructure required to build them, as well as the successful testing of new materials suitable for the manufacturing of next generation batteries, such as graphene.

To sum up, we can declare that the long awaited equity of prices between electric and combustion engine vehicles is just around the corner due to cheaper battery costs. Therefore, we can expect a tremendous growth of electric vehicles sales during the first years of the upcoming decade.

I leave you a link to an article written by Bloomberg which features several graphs that explain very well how the prices of batteries and electric vehicles are decreasing.


Enjoy your day,
Pablo García

Re: Batteries
« Reply #8 on: 29 August , 2019, 00:39:18 am »
Hello everyone,

I have found a piece of news which says that Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries could be the best batteries for electric cars.

Because of their high energy density, nowadays, the lithium-ion battery is the most used one in electric cars. However, there are other batteries less known as the Lithium Iron Phosphate which could be very useful for electric vehicles.

To begin with, I would like to say that Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries are not new. They have been fabricated mostly by Chinese and American manufacturers for quite a few years. While the Chinese manufactured the batteries in the same way without improving the existing technology, an American company called A123 Systems managed to develop improvements in Lithium Iron Phosphate battery's technology. This company was able to improve the energy density of the batteries while increasing their lifespan.

Unfortunately, the technology developed by A123 Systems did not reach the market. When this company was preparing the mass production of these batteries, quality control problems occurred. Then A123 Systems went bankrupt and the Chinese company Wanxiang took over it, stopping all the evolution that had been achieved in Lithium Iron Phosphate battery technology.

Although these batteries are well-known for being "almost perfect", they also have their disadvantages. Their low energy density makes them incompatible with current electric cars. (These batteries were used in some old electric cars). Now you will be wondering why I started my post saying that this type of batteries could be the best ones for EVs if they are incompatible with electric cars. To be compatible with electric cars, the energy density of the batteries should be increased up to 200 Wh/kg. At the moment, the Chinese companies ETC and  BYD are working on that. When they achieve the goal of increasing the energy density, we will have cobalt-free, extremely safe, cheap and long-lasting batteries.

I am going to give you an example of a car which used these type of batteries. Between 1993 and 1996 the Hotzenblitz was created. This was a German electric car that had an acid-lead battery with a range of 70 km. When they changed its battery into a Lithium Iron Phosphate battery, the range of the Hotzenblitz became 150 km.

To sum up, I would say that it is necessary to manufacture better batteries for the electric car revolution to take place, and in my opinion Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries are a good option to start with.

What do you think of Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries?

Best regards,
Eider Del Hoyo (Spain)